Barn owl (Tyto alba)

Male barn owl perched
IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern LEAST

Top facts

  • The barn owl is one of the most wide-ranging birds in the world, found in Europe, Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australasia.
  • Barn owls do not hoot, instead emitting a long, eerie screech. They also hiss, snore and yap.
  • With its asymmetrical ears, the barn owl has the most acute hearing of any animal.
  • The barn owl is recognisable by its ghostly pale colour and heart-shaped facial disc.
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Barn owl fact file

Barn owl description

GenusTyto (1)

Ethereal and ghost-like, the barn owl (Tyto alba) has golden-grey coloured upperparts, and pure white underparts (6). The heart-shaped facial disc is pale, and the large eyes are black (2). It flies silently and slowly, often with the feet dangling (2). A number of vocalisations are produced, including an eerie drawn-out shriek (6).

Chouette effraie.
Wingspan: 80-95 cm (2)
Length: 33-39 cm (2)

Barn owl biology

The barn owl feeds on small rodents, especially voles and mice (8), and on frogs and insects (2), which it locates using its excellent sense of hearing (9). It is usually active in the evening, early morning or at night (8), but in times of hard frost or snowfall, individuals may be forced to hunt for longer periods, and may be seen in the day (10).

The unlined nest is made in hollow trees or in old buildings. In April or May, between four and six white eggs are laid. These are incubated solely by the female, who is fed by the male during this time (6). Incubation starts after the first egg is laid, so they hatch at intervals (8), 32 to 34 days after being laid (6). The young therefore vary widely in age and size (8), and spend a very long time in the nest, between 64 to 86 days (6).


Barn owl range

The barn owl is widespread throughout Britain, but is scarce or absent from the Highlands and the islands of Scotland (6). It is one of the most wide-ranging birds in the world, known from most of Europe, Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australasia (7).

You can view distribution information for this species at the National Biodiversity Network Atlas.

Barn owl habitat

Occurs in farmland with hedgerows and copses, uncultivated areas such as heaths and marshes, sometimes large gardens, and occasionally in villages close to fields (8). It typically nests in tree holes, ruined buildings and farm buildings, hence the association with barns reflected by the common name (2).


Barn owl status

The barn owl is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List (1). Specially protected under Schedules 1 and 9 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (3). Listed as a Species of Conservation Concern by the UK Biodiversity Action Plan, but not a priority species (4). Included in the Birds of Conservation Concern Amber List (medium conservation concern) (5).

IUCN Red List species status – Least Concern


Barn owl threats

From the middle of the 19th century, the beautiful barn owl began to decline in Britain. The original decline is thought to have been the result of an increase in persecution. The decline continued as a result of agricultural intensification, poor winter weather, traffic deaths, pesticide use and a loss of hunting and nesting sites (11).


Barn owl conservation

Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981, it is illegal to kill, injure or take a barn owl or to remove or damage eggs. The Barn Owl Conservation Network (BOCN), a project of the Hawk and Owl Trust, is promoting a habitat creation scheme, with the provision of nest boxes to help this species (9).

View information on this species at the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
There may be further information about this species available via the National Biodiversity Network Atlas.

Find out more

For more on the conservation of barn owls, and details of how you can help:

For more information on the barn owl and other bird species:



Information authenticated by the RSPB:



To keep eggs warm so that development is possible.
The act of incubating eggs, that is, keeping them warm so that development is possible.


  1. IUCN Red List (May, 2011)
  2. Mullarney, K., Svensson, L., Zetterstrom, D., & Grant, P.J. (1999) Collins Bird Guide. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, London.
  3. Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (November 2002):
  4. BTO- Breeding Birds of the Wider Countryside: Barn Owl. (November 2002):
  5. RSPB (2003) The population status of birds in the UK:
  6. Gooders, J. (1982) Collins British Birds. William Collins Sons and Co Ltd, London.
  7. Walters, M. (1994) Eyewitness Handbooks: Birds Eggs. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  8. RSPB (2003): Pers. comm.
  9. Barn Owl Conservation Network (November 2002):
  10. Lack, P. (1986) The Atlas of Wintering Birds in Britain and Ireland. T. & A. D. Poyser Ltd, Calton.
  11. Balmer, D.E. Adams, S.Y. and Crick, H.Q.P. (2000) Report on Barn Owl Release Scheme: Monitoring Project Phase II. BTO Research Report No. 250.

Image credit

Male barn owl perched  
Male barn owl perched

© Martin B Withers /

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Listen to the Barn owl

Male barn owl perched
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Barn owl recordings by Geoffrey A. Keller and Gerrit Vyn

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